Legal and ethical.

When a producer is running a show or film they have 2 factors to consider, legal issues and ethical issues. a producer must know what lines they can and cant cross, for example; a show can legally show a women being raped, but it can be seen as un ethical and morally wrong. however the morality of a piece can change depending on what context it is used in, for example; a show showing a women getting raped is generally unethical and wrong, however if that show is a hard hitting drama, that intends to educate an audience on what to do to prevent these situations, it may be acceptable.

on the other hand a show can be morally okay yet be illegal.


Law: [mass noun] (often the law) the system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties:

Ethical: relating to moral principles or the branch of knowledge.

Tomas pauls definition of ethical in the media: ‘set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behaviour helps and does not harms’

Ethical issue’s ar eoften very subjective and it often comes down to how things are portray and what approach shows take on various issues.


There are many laws a tv show has to abide by. a producer must know these laws a check a show doesnt break any of them before it makes it to tv.

Wikipedia definition of entertainment laws: Entertainment law covers an area of law which involves media of all types (TV, film, music, publishing, advertising, Internet & news media, etc.), and stretches over various legal fields, including but not limited to corporate, finance, intellectual property, publicity and privacy.

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999:

in the media industry this requires all producers to have a risk assessment conducted at every location they or their employees have to work. risks often found on a set include cables, plugs, lighting, sound and heavy equipment.

Intellectual property:

Wikipedia definition: Intellectual property (IP) is a legal concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognised. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.

this basically means the original creator of content has exclusivity over there content. this means no other person can use this with permission from the original. it also means the original creator must be credited, for example; although the batman comics are no longer written by him, bob kane the creator of batman is credited in each comic as the creator.

a producer must check if the tv show they are running conflicts with anybody elses intellectual property, for example, if a producer is given a show about a time traveller travelling through space in a blue box with a companion, then doctor who can claim its a complete rip off off its show and it conflicts with there intellectual property.

Intellectual property can be sold, which means all rights are transferred over to the buyer. for example the original creator of superman sold the rights many years ago, and now his son is trying to claim some sort of rights to the money made by the superman franchise. the son has lost many times in court because his father sold the intellectual property and therefore his son has no rights.

European Convention of Human Rights definition:

Article 10, Freedom of Expression

1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authorities and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent states from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.

2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law

This is where the phrase’ this is a free country’ comes from. this law means media outlets have the freedom the express any opinion they wish to do as long as it doesn’t conflict with a variety of laws. those laws include the intellectual property act. some companies such as the bbc are not allowed the same freedom as other companies as it must remain unbiased in its opinion. this is another case where ethics and law clash.


as previously stated a producer has to take into consideration an ethical issues a show might face.

for example, although legally a show is entitled to freedom of expression, if an opinion is expressed that the majority of the audience will find offensive then it is un ethical to have that opinion air on tv.

other ethical issues a producer might face is the portrayal of gender race and ethnicity. this has been a major issue in recent years as often groups feel tv portrays there culture in a negative way, and often over exaggerate a stereotype.

ethical issues are the most difficult the define as what is right and what is wrong as alot of it depends on your personal opinion or view on a situation. generally a ethical issue is defined by the dominant ideology. this means the idea that the majority of the audience has is seen as the ‘right’ point of view.



Radio/Tv Advert Analysis.


Telvision adverts have 3 different purposes; to promote, to raise awareness or to sell. adverts that are to promote tend to be for political campaigns or for tv shows. adverts that are there to raise awarness are most commonly made by charity raising awareness of particular problems in the world. finally adverts that are made to sell are often made by product companys or shops.

all adverts have to follow particular guidelines. there are different guidelines depending on when your advert is shown( for example; adverts can swear and be more adult after the watershed)

adverts also tend to focus on a few key features such as target audience.

Call of duty: Black Ops 2 ‘Surprise’ trailer:

This advertisement has a very specific target audience, however it finds a way to appeal to the general public. Call of duty have be known to do a lot of live action trailers and this one was no different, the advert starts with a man dressed in soldier gear sitting on a tire playing with some equipment, the camera then pans out to reveal he is in a war torn city with many destroyed buildings and vehicles. this sets the tone of the rest of the ad.

the start of the advert instantly makes it obvious who the target audience is. the advert targets mainly gamers, anyone who is into gaming will recognise the setting is similar to a multiplayer game of call of duty. the fast paced action combined with the ‘killstreaks’ zooming about really creates the same vibe the multiplayer game does. this makes the advert instantly connect with the target audience, it also makes the target audience feel special, as if they are in an exclusive group that only they will understand what this advert is about.

the advert then moves into a shot of a sniper targeting the man at the beginning this leads to a series of different characters each trying to kill one another with a different item from the game. the advert flows well as it uses the various weapons to transition between characters for example a women fires a tomahawk towards the sniper which leads into the reveal of the women, who is shot at which leads to the reveal of the shooter and so on. this sort of transitioning makes it feel one complete video as opposed to a group of clips put together.

this leads to my next point, the majority of the characters are played by ‘internet famous’ stars. only a particular group of people would recognise these people, a minority compared to the size of people that would watch this advert. this gives the advert a certain edge, makes it special for the people who are in the know and can suddenly change their attitude towards the product. However it still appeals to the mainstream audience by feature hollywood megastar (and all around badass) Robert Downey Jnr.

Batman: Arkham City – Hugo Strange Trailer

the batman arkham city takes a different approach and instead of trying to appeal to the products primary tarket audience (comic book fans and gamers) it appeals to a mainstream audience by creating a action pack, fully cinematic trailer. this can work out well considering a wide majority of people atleast know about batman, and know the basic idea around him. this trailer appeals to that, by having dramtic action sequances, but also educates the audience on what the game is. the reason i say this doesnt appeal to thew products primary audience is because it features no actual gameplay, and rtherefore didnt show that demographic what they would of wanted to see.

the advert takes alot of inspiration from hollywood blockbuster film trailers, the way its set up, showing the evil villain torturing a victim before showing the hero beating up a bunch of henchmen before finishing on the major plot twist, the shots used are reminiscent of James bond trailers.

the advert also features arguebly the best looking cgi of the past 10 years, at some points it genuinly look real, the lighting and particle effects made it feel 3 dimensional and added to the tone of the advert.

Comparing the 2 modern adverts:

the 2 adverts take a very different approach to target audience, the first appealing to its minority audience more but still managing to appeal to the mainstream audience, while the second avoids its majority target audience in an attempt to appeal to a more mainstream audience, and takes alot of inspiration from modern action film trailers. personally i feel the COD trailer is better, but that is because im part of the audience the ad is targeted at and I’m ‘in the know’ about who these people are, however i believe the arkham city adverts is truly amazing and one of the best cinematic gaming adverts of its time.


The nintendo entertainment system was by far one of the most popular gaming consoles of its era, and part of its success can be put on this ad. similar to the modern batman advert; the NES advert takes some inspiration from film adverts, with its quik pacing and upbeat rock and roll music. it also establishes its target audience by feature 2 young males. another tactic the advert uses is it features gameplay from 2 very popular titles: batman and super mario. Batman had recently released a very high profile movie which was revolutionary for the batman franchise. NES used the hype surounding the batman film to sell there product, this makes the system appeal to people who enjoyed the film, aswell as casual batman fans. it then showed gameplay of super mario which had already established itself as one of the leading products in the gaming industry. it also stated that it came with over 60 games, which back then was unheard of and a very large gaming libary for a console. the script and voice over for this ad must be commend too, as it made super mario, a cartoon childish game, seem like a epic action battle to save a princess. it also highlighted alot of the NES’s features such as the 2 different controllers, quik loading cartridge system, in fared red controller as well as the various accessories.

Sega Genesis Blast Processing:

This advert is great for all the wrong reasons. it uses very dirty tactics, and many may see it as un ethical. Sega directly attacks the nintendo NES which some may see as slander. it claims that the sega genesis has ‘blast processing’ where as the NES doesn’t. it then goes on to compare the Genesis to a high speed race car and compared the NES to and old broken van, it even went as far as to strap a NES to the back of the van. the advert also shows some gameplay of games such as sonic the hedgehog, which ties in well to the advert as they are high speed action games. it also shows nintendos own super Mario karts, and displays it as a slow paced game.

these very dirty tactics are effective but un ethical and in the modern day would not be allowed on television.

Comparing the 2 retro ads:

the 2 ads are for the same type of product yet take very different approaches. the NES aims it product at teenagers with its high action advert, where as the Genesis uses dirty tactic to both slander to competition whilst still promoting its own pro ducting and claims it has something that the other console doesn’t. personally i find the Genesis ad to be the most effective however i feel the NES ad is the better ad of the two because it does its purpose without the need to slander the competition.



audiences watch stuff.  To understand what audience want to watch it is important that producers can recognise how audiences are composed and how to identify them. a producer would define a audience based on a variety of variables. although it is easy to define a audience it is often subjective and can often change.

the most common variables used to define audiences are

  • gender
  • age
  • beliefs
  • race
  • social class
  • hobbies

the social class refers to the nrs system, the is a demographic classification originally used by the nation readership survey. this puts individuals in specific classes based on the occupation of the head of the household. the classes are:

A upper middle class Higher managerial, administrative or professional
B middle class Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional
C1 lower middle class Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional
C2 skilled working class Skilled manual workers
D working class Semi and unskilled manual workers
E Those at the lowest levels of subsistence Casual or lowest grade workers, pensioners and others who depend on the welfare state for their income

only 2% of the UK population is classed as ‘upper class’. this system is often used as part of market research by a lot of large companies and producers when trying to work out there target audience.

the hypodermic needle theory suggests that an audiences can be controlled and influenced by a messaged being ‘injected’ into through the use of media.

quote from wikipedia:

‘It suggests that the media injects its messages straight into the passive audience (Croteau, Hoynes 1997). This passive audience is immediately affected by these messages. The public essentially cannot escape from the media’s influence, and is therefore considered a “sitting duck” (Croteau, Hoynes 1997). Both models suggest that the public is vulnerable to the messages shot at them because of the limited communication tools and the studies of the media’s effects on the masses at the time (Davis, Baron 1981).’

this theory has now been disproved (wikipedia):

the research movement, led by Paul Lazarsfeld and Herta Herzog, that would disprove the magic bullet or hypodermic needle theory, as Hadley Cantril managed to show that reactions to the broadcast were, in fact, diverse, and were largely determined by situational and attitudinal attributes of the listeners.

this proves that an audience can not be accurately categorised as reactions are subjective and can therefore only be generally categorised.

once a producer has defined an audience it must decide what its target audience is to the product they are presenting. this will be determined by looking at the product and deciding what type of audience would enjoy the product the most. i will be using toy story 3 as an example. the obvious target audience for this film would be children with the age range from 2 – 12, however the audience is subjective as the toy story franchise played an important role in the childhood of many people, so people between the age 16 – 21 would also be interested to see what disney had done with the franchise that had them repeatedly watching the films in there childhood.





Video Killed The Radio Star.

Thats the name of the first music video to be played on a channel that would become the worlds largest music video broadcast company.

MTV launched in 1981 with the sole purpose to showcase music videos. the original plan was to showcase the music videos and be hosted by a variety of people who would be called VJ’s. since then MTV has created many sister channels and began creating its own tv shows. nowadays the music videos have moved to the sister channels and MTV main channel shows reality based TV shows aim at the 14- 25 demographic.

MTV started of broadcasting in new jersey but has evolved to broadcast all across the world from the UK to asia.

MTV has gone from a small time channel to a pop culture phenomenon. the channel has developed from music videos to reality shows to award ceremonies. it has even branched out into children’s TV and one of its sister channels( nickelodeon) is one of the largest children’s tv channels in the world second only to the disney channel.

MTV, in total, has more then 20 channels world wide:

  • MTV
  • MTV +1
  • MTV HD
  • MTV Live
  • MTV Live HD
  • MTV Music
  • MTV Base
  • MTV Hits
  • MTV Dance
  • MTV Rocks
  • MTV Classic
  • VH1
  • Viva
  • Comedy Central
  • Comedy Central HD
  • Comedy Central +1
  • Comedy Central Extra
  • Comedy Central Extra +1
  • Nickelodeon
  • Nickelodeon HD
  • Nick Replay
  • Nick Jr.
  • Nick Jr. 2
  • Nicktoons
  • Nicktoons Replay

Where Would We Be Without MTV?:

personally i believe we would only be a few years behind in terms of music videos, not long after mtg the internet would come into play and eventually music videos would have gotten to the point it is now, but the journey there would of been very different.

Whats next for MTV?:

There is only one more place for MTV to go and thats onto the internet, however it is going to be very difficult for MTV to do well in that market unless they find a unique selling point they have to much competition that can offer the same thing for free. companies like youtube and vevo already have the video market on the internet and it will take something revolutionary to take there place.

Did Video Kill The Radiostar?:

when was the last time you listened to the radio?

review: chase and status ft plan B

Chase And Status, as well as plan B are 2 of the uk best talents. chase and status’s unique dance beats mixed in with plan B’s soulful voice is a perfect and unique hybrid. these 2 artist have collaborated many times and today i will talk about the music video for there collaborated track, end credits.


the music video is about the death of a character played by plan B. we see Plan B fall to the ground in slow motion, this indicates either suicide or his been pushed. this then leads into many flashback scenes which plan B is Watching, This works with the idea that your life flashes before your eyes when you die. the music video also includes footage from the film, harry brown.

Bad Points:

the video often gets confusing as it often randomly switches from the music videos narrative and the movie footage, both of them have similar story lines and makes it hard to tell the difference, it left me unsure as to wether or not plan B was also in the movie.

good points:

firstly, the song is very very good. the tone of it fits the video perfectly as well as the song being very well produced. moving on, the video started of well with the clip of plan b’s body falling to the ground slowly. it served its purpose well as it grabbed the viewers attention

, also once the body hit the ground a man walked by his body, this leaves the viewer intrigued and wanting to know more.

we then moved to a close up shot of plan b’s face as he begins to sing

, this is followed by a clip of plan B watching himself in a police questioning room. this sets the scene for the rest of the music video as it makes clear that we are watching him review his own life.

the music video also does well in setting a dark tone, as most the sets are quite dark, run down and unpleasant.

Personal Opinion:

spike jonze

spike Jonze Is A legend. the man has directed music videos, movie, television, commercials and plenty more, many of you have seen his work but may not of realised it. the man has directed many pop culture classics such as

Fat Boy Slim – weapon of choice


kanye west and jay-Z – otis

Arcade Fire – The Suburbs

back story:

he began life as adam speigal, but in his teens he was given the nickname spike jonze by mike henderson, the owner of the bethesda community store.

his first major success came when he produced the video for the beastie boys – sabotage, this lead to him to work with many other artists such as tenacious D, Fat Boy Slim, R.E.M, Daftpunk and kanye west.

Fatboy Slim – Praise You:

praise you is often touted as the most original music video of all time. the video is of ‘fan footage’ of a dance troupe performing out dated b-boy moves in a movie theatre lobby. the most interesting aspect is the fact that the dance troupe is lead by spike jonze himself. this music video is now often seen as a cult classic, a legend in the history of music videos.

Ikea Ad:

this ikea advert is pure genius. through the use of music, camera angles, lighting and pathetic fallacy (the weather), spike has managed to provoke emotion from us towards a lamp. the ad makes you feel sorry for the lamp that has been left on the street my its owner. it is made to seem asif the lamp is looking at its previous owner as he plays with his new lamp. this personification of a lamp is genius and he makes the audience carry this emotion through out the ad. until a german man in a large coat walks on and calls you crazy for feeling sorry for a lamp. because the new one is obviously better.

spike uses various technical elements perfectly to create the illusion that the lamp has feeling:


spike uses a lot of great shots in this ad, one of the shots he uses to give the lamp feelings is the point of view shot. this gives the lamp feelings by creating the idea that what the audience see’s is what the lamp is seeing, which creates the idea that the lamp has eyes and therefore a mind and feelings.


spike use’s a variety of sounds to create the tone and atmosphere of the ad. to start, the music he uses can be seen as depressing  and sad. this is so the audience will link those emotions to the lamp which will create the idea that those are the feelings that the lamp is feeling. spike also uses sound effects like thunder and lightening, again this is to make the audience link emotion to the lamp as thunder and lightening is often associated with fear.


spike uses i variety of different things to create the mis-en-scene, one of the most noticeable objects are the trash cans and trash bags outside the owners house. the lamp is placed by the bags to portray being thrown out. another ver noticeable object is the lamps lightbulb. halfway through the ad, as the the lamp is “looking on” at its owner playing with his new lamp, the light bulb goes out slowly, this creates the idea that the lamp has lost hope.


spike has been very clever with his editing, a scene in the ad shows the old lamp watch on as its owner plays around with the new lamp. this scene starts of with an over the shoulder clip from the point of view of the old lamp and then flicks to a close up clip of the new lamp being played with. this could be seen as a point of view shot as we are looking at the new lamp from outside the building, through a window. this is when the editing gets interesting as it quickly switches between shots of either lamp, both from the point of view of the other lamp, until the final clip of the old lamps light going out. this piece of editing builds up the tension and makes it feel as if the old lamps emotions are building up quickly until the bubble over and his light goes out.


spike jonze creates instant classics. his unique style and creativity ebbs and flows through all his work. he has the ‘anything he touches turns to gold’ effect and thats because he has mastered his trade and worked to do it. spike jonze is a legend.

The 15 steps of production

  1. Brainstorm/Generate an idea- Done
  2. Research (Primary and Secondary)- In process…
  3. Analyse research
  4. Develop idea
  5. Proposal
  6. Production Schedule
  7. Budget
  8. Storyboard
  9. Location recce (Risk Assessments)
  10. Contingency Plan
  11. Shooting schedule
  12. Call sheets
  13. Production!
  14. Offline edit
  15. Online Edit